Isaiah 59-63

We have an outline of salvation:
  • Our state: separation from God because of our sin (Is. 59:1-8)
  • Therefore we seek a solution on our own, but find none (Is. 59:9-11)
  • Specific transgressions that separate us from God (Is. 59:12-15a)
  • God is not pleased with our sin (Is. 59:15b)
  • He looked for a solution, but found one among men (Is. 59:16a)
  • Therefore, He brought salvation Himself (Is. 59:16b-17)
  • Through Jesus, He will both reconcile those who turn to Him and punish his adversaries (Is. 59:18-20)
  • And God makes this an everlasting covenant (Is. 59:21)
  • God's arm is not short - he is able to save
  • He is not dull of hearing - he is aware of the people's need
    • However, He chooses not to hear the people because of their sin (v. 2)
    • How does sin break our relationship with God?
      • Ps. 66:18
      • John 9:30-33
      • Anger, bitterness, or tension: 1 Pet 3:7
      • Lack of forgiveness: Mark 11:25
    • Grace is not a license to sin because we will be forgiven - sin breaks the relationship we have with God.  Therefore repentance is a required act on our part in order to receive the gift of salvation from God.  We are called to follow God's commands in order to maintain relationship with him, but not to earn salvation (v. 16).
      • Acts 17:29-31 - commands all men to repent because he will judge...
      • Rom 2:1-8 - impenitent heart... treasure up for yourselves wrath
      • 1 John 1:5-10 - if we walk in the light... the blood of Christ cleanses us
      • Mat 3:8 - repentance results in us yielding good fruit
What are their sins?
  • Hands filled with blood (v. 3)
  • Lips speaking lies
  • Tongue mutters perversity
  • Not calling for justice (v. 4)
  • Conceive and bring forth (initiate) iniquity (sin)
  • Run to evil (v. 7)
  • Shed innocent blood
  • Their actions bring death, like poisonous snakes (vipers), that harm themselves and each other
  • Weave the spider's web... will not become garments
    • Their works will not cover themselves any more than a cobweb can be used to cover oneself - God sees right through them and will judge them accordingly
59:16 - We need an intercessor to save us - one to come between us and God - we could never reach to God on our own because of the fallen state described in the first half of the chapter.

59:17 - Two of the same articles of the armor of God found in Eph. 6:14-20
  • Therefore, as put on the armor of God, this is another aspect of being like Christ
  • This verse so tightly couples "salvation" with "vengeance" and v. 18 follows with judgement on His enemies
    • God is both fully merciful and fully just - He cannot bring about salvation without also bringing condemnation on those who don't accept the intercessor of v. 16
59:20-21 - quoted by Paul in Rom 11:25-32
  • "My covenant... shall not depart... from your descendants, nor you descendants descendants... forevermore"
  • Therefore, in Romans, Paul assures the Jews that even though they have been cut out temporarily in discipline because of their rejection of the Messiah, there is still grace for them to be grafted back in, just like the Gentiles were also grafted in (Rom 11:19-24)

Isaiah 60


“The first message of salvation describes how God’s glorious coming as a light to Zion (Isa 60:1–3) will glorify God and the city of Zion where he will dwell. His coming will attract Hebrews and Gentiles from around the world. They will come with gifts of gold, sacrifices, and praise to God (Isa 60:4–9). Although in past times Judah was judged (Isa 60:10, 15, 18), in the future all who oppose God will perish (Isa 60:12) and all those who love God will come to the holy city of the Lord. Then Hebrews and Gentiles will experience the presence of their Savior and Lord (Isa 60:16) and the transformation of Zion. In that day God’s light will be brighter than the sun (Isa 60:19), and everyone there will be righteous and bring glory to God (Isa 60:21).” [1]


The chapter is held together as a literary unit by repeated references to:

  1. “coming, bringing” of the Lord, people, and wealth to Zion

  2. ideas related to “glorifying” God and Zion

  3. the coming of the “light”

Altogether, this presents a picture that is similar to the eschatological coming of God predicted in Isa 40:5. The purpose for God’s coming will be to glorify Himself and Zion. We can divide the chapter into three sections: 

God’s glory will attract nations to honor Him (Isa 60:1-9)

The previous chapter talked about a time when God would put on righteousness and salvation (Isa 59:17), judge the wicked (Isa 59:18), come to Zion as redeemer (Isa 59:20), and establish His covenant relationship with His people.

Isa 60:1-3 “Arise! Shine! For your light arrives! The splendor of the LORD shines on you! 2 For, look, darkness covers the earth and deep darkness covers the nations, but the LORD shines on you; his splendor appears over you. 3 Nations come to your light, kings to your bright light”

This addresses Zion - which represents the people of God (those redeemed by Christ). Zion is held in contrast to Mt.Sinai where the OT law was given to Moses: Hebrews 12:22. The glory of the Lord is found in Christ: John 1:14. The glory of the Lord being with Israel in Exodus is a shadow of this. One of the ways we can tell if something is a shadow of eternity is that the Bible either specifically mentions it or uses the same imagery in a way that makes it obvious to us. Exodus 13:21 tells us about God’s glory with Israel and Isaiah 4:5–6 talks about God’s glory to come using the same language with the point being that God will protect His people and also show His glory to the other nations (gentiles).

Isa 60:4-9 “4 Look all around you! They all gather and come to you— your sons come from far away and your daughters are escorted by guardians. 5 Then you will look and smile, you will be excited and your heart will swell with pride. For the riches of distant lands will belong to you and the wealth of nations will come to you. 6       Camel caravans will cover your roads, young camels from Midian and Ephah. All the merchants of Sheba will come, bringing gold and incense and singing praises to the LORD. 7 All the sheep of Kedar will be gathered to you; the rams of Nebaioth will be available to you as sacrifices. They will go up on my altar acceptably, and I will bestow honor on my majestic temple. 8 Who are these who float along like a cloud, who fly like doves to their shelters? 9 Indeed, the coastlands look eagerly for me, the large ships are in the lead, bringing your sons from far away, along with their silver and gold, to honor the LORD your God, the Holy One of Israel, for he has bestowed honor on you.”

Recall that God told Abraham to lift up his eyes and look at Canaan which he and his seed were to possess (Gen 13:14-17). In contrast, here Zion is told to look and see her dispersed children coming from other lands (Isa 60:4).  Rather than Christians being hated and despised (Rom 8:31-39), we will be honored. The rams are not a literal sacrifice as we know from passages such as Hebrews 10:1, Hebrews 13:10-16.

As for the daughters escorted by guardians or “carried at the hip”:

“Earlier in Isa 49:22 the young daughters were carried on the shoulders of others, and in Isa 66:20 people are carried on horses, chariots and wagons, on mules, and on camels. The point of this verse is not to explain how these children ate or to suggest that these children were orphans without Hebrew parents; rather, God is assuring the audience that he will make certain that no one will be left behind, not even the helpless children who are not yet able to walk.”[2]

Times have changed: Foreigners will help glorify Zion (Isa 60:10-16)

Isa 60:10-16 “10 Foreigners will rebuild your walls; their kings will serve you. Even though I struck you down in my anger, I will restore my favor and have compassion on you. 11 Your gates will remain open at all times; they will not be shut during the day or at night, so that the wealth of nations may be delivered, with their kings leading the way. 12 Indeed, nations or kingdoms that do not serve you will perish; such nations will be totally destroyed. 13 The splendor of Lebanon will come to you, its evergreens, firs, and cypresses together, to beautify my palace; I will bestow honor on my throne room. 14 The children of your oppressors will come bowing to you; all who treated you with disrespect will bow down at your feet. They will call you, ‘The City of the LORD, Zion of the Holy One of Israel.’ 15 You were once abandoned and despised, with no one passing through, but I will make you a permanent source of pride and joy to coming generations. 16 You will drink the milk of nations; you will nurse at the breasts of kings. Then you will recognize that I, the LORD, am your deliverer, your protector, the powerful ruler of Jacob.”

Jerusalem had been attacked by foreign enemies throughout history including the Babylonians who destroyed its walls and later the Romans who would do it again. The gates of Jerusalem would have been shut every night against attack like other Near Eastern cities -- which reflected God’s judgement that was often on the city. Here, however, there will be no opposition from foreign nations or anything else. In fact, nations and monarchs will help instead of hurt Jerusalem with their wealth and services. As for Isa 60:10, the Persians made possible the rebuilding of the walls but did not do it themselves and the true fulfillment is beyond the OT era altogether.

The wood from Lebanon means that the finest materials would be used to beautify the Lord’s palace. The trees of Lebanon were used to build Solomon’s temple to the Lord (1 Kings 5:6). As we know from passages such as Revelation 21:21, God is exalted and glorified above any earthly king and the mention of rare and superior materials makes that point.

The transformation of the new city of Zion (Isa 60:17-22)

Isa 60:17-22 “ 17 Instead of bronze, I will bring you gold, instead of iron, I will bring you silver, instead of wood, I will bring you bronze, instead of stones, I will bring you iron. I will make prosperity your overseer, and vindication your sovereign ruler. 18 Sounds of violence will no longer be heard in your land, or the sounds of destruction and devastation within your borders. You will name your walls, ‘Deliverance,’ and your gates, ‘Praise.’ 19 The sun will no longer supply light for you by day, nor will the moon’s brightness shine on you; the LORD will be your permanent source of light— the splendor of your God will shine upon you. 20 Your sun will no longer set; your moon will not disappear; the LORD will be your permanent source of light; your time of sorrow will be over. 21 All of your people will be godly; they will possess the land permanently. I will plant them like a shoot; they will be the product of my labor, through whom I reveal my splendor. 22 The least of you will multiply into a thousand; the smallest of you will become a large nation. When the right time comes, I the LORD will quickly do this!”

God will reverse the present failures and sorrows of His people through the open display of His own presence forever.  

Isa 60:19: God will be the source of light as He was in the beginning (Gen 1:3), and is currently in a figurative sense within us (2 Cor 4:6), and will be in the end (Rev 21:23).


1. Smith, G. (2009). Isaiah 40-66 (Vol. 15B, pp. 615–616). Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers.

2. Crossway Bibles. (2008). The ESV Study Bible (p. 1351). Wheaton, IL: Crossway Bibles.

Isaiah 61


It is confusing whether or not there is a clear distinction between Israel and adopted believers. Dispensationalism makes the following assertions [5]:

1) a clear distinction between Israel and the Church,

2) literal interpretation of Scripture, and

3) the glory of God as the primary goal of history.

Some non-dispensationalists would say the following about these points:

“We find only the third of these principles to be valid. As stated above, God's glory is clearly the driving force behind all things .... We believe there is one people of God, rooted in the Abrahamic Covenant, united in Christ, and consisting of both Jew and Gentile alike. -”

John MacArthur calls himself a “leaky dispensationalist” because although he affirms a clear distinction between Israel and the Church, he more often than not sides with anti-dispensationalists:

“In a recent interview, MacArthur called himself a “leaky dispensationalist” and has often stated plainly that he is much closer to covenant theologians than he is to most Dispensationalists.” 

Summary [1]

In the previous chapter, the speaker was God. In this chapter, the dominant speaker is the one anointed by God. God has anointed the speaker with the Spirit and has tasked him with several responsibilities (Isa 61:1-3) that are similar to some of the duties of the Servant in Isa 42 and Isa 49. His work will: 

  1. benefit the broken-hearted

  2. involve the rebuilding of ruined cities

  3. cause the nations to bring their riches

  4. result in a double blessing (Isa 61:4-7).

This will happen because God hates injustice and will reward His people with an everlasting covenant (Isa 61:8-9). God’s great salvation will bring a great outpouring of joy and praise from His people (Isa 61:10-11).

Exegesis [2]

Isa 61:1 The Spirit...acceptable year of the LORD.

Jesus will be the ultimate Preacher and the Redeemer of Israel who rescues them. Jesus speaks of the initial fulfillment of this promise (Luke 4:18-19). He says specifically, “Today this Scripture is fulfilled in your hearing” (Luke 4:21). This promise has only partially been fulfilled, however. In the future, all Israel will be saved (Romans 11:25-27).

Isa 61:2 acceptable of vengeance

“acceptable year” is the same as “the day of salvation” in Isa 49:8. This is where Jesus stopped reading in the synagogue (Luke 4:19) indicating, according to John Macarthur, that the subsequent writing in the rest of this chapter (Isa 61:3-11) awaited the second coming of Christ.

“day of vengeance”: as part of His deliverance of Israel, the LORD will pour out wrath on all who oppose Him (Rev 6-19, Isa 59:17-18) yes, that’s 19 chapters of Revelation dedicated to God’s wrath.  

Isa 61:3 console...glorified

The purpose of the Lord’s consolation of the mourners after centuries of suffering will be to glorify Himself (Isa 60:21). As the Westminster Shorter Catechism summarizes, “man’s chief end is to glorify God and enjoy Him forever”. 1 Cor 10:31 says we should do everything to the Glory of God. 

Isa 61:4 rebuild

This seems to indicate that Israel’s destroyed cities from the past will be rebuilt. This might be part of the new heavens and the new earth (Isa 65:17, Isa 66:22).

Isa 61:6 priests of the Lord

This is a fulfillment of Exodus 19:6. There might be a distinction between us as priests and Israel as priests but I’m not sure. I didn’t have enough time to convince myself. We, at least, as God’s children, are priests. Peter applied the same terminology to the church (1 Peter 2:9). Old Testament priests were chosen by God, not self-appointed; and they were chosen for a purpose: to serve God with their lives by offering up sacrifices. The priesthood served as a picture or "type" of the coming ministry of Jesus Christ--a picture that was then no longer needed once His sacrifice on the cross was completed. When the thick temple veil that covered the doorway to the Holy of Holies was torn in two by God at the time of Christ’s death (Matthew 27:51), God was indicating that the Old Testament priesthood was no longer necessary. Now people could come directly to God through the great High Priest, Jesus Christ (Hebrews 4:14-16). There are now no earthly mediators between God and man as existed in the Old Testament priesthood (1 Timothy 2:5).

Christ our High Priest has made one sacrifice for sin for all time (Hebrews 10:12), and there is no more sacrifice for sin that can be made (Hebrews 10:26). But as priests once offered other kinds of sacrifices in the temple, so it is clear from 1 Peter 2:5,9 that God has chosen Christians "to offer up spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ." 1 Peter 2:5-9 speaks of two aspects of the priesthood of the believer. The first is that believers are privileged. To be chosen by God to be a priest was a privilege. All believers have been chosen by God: a "chosen generation...His own special people" (verse 9). In the Old Testament tabernacle and temple, there were places where only the priests could go. Into the Holy of Holies, behind a thick veil, only the High Priest could go, and that only once a year on the Day of Atonement when he made a sin offering on behalf of all of the people. But as mentioned above, because of Jesus’ death upon the cross of Calvary, all believers now have direct access to the throne of God through Jesus Christ our great High Priest (Hebrews 4:14-16). What a privilege to be able to access the very throne of God directly, not through any earthly priest. When Christ returns and the New Jerusalem comes to earth (Revelation 21), believers will see God face-to-face and will serve Him there (Revelation 22:3-4) Again, what a privilege especially for us who were once "not a people" ... "without hope" ... destined for destruction because of our sin.

The second aspect of the believer’s priesthood is that we are chosen for a purpose: to offer up spiritual sacrifices (see Hebrews 13:15-16 for example), and to proclaim the praises of Him who called us out of darkness into His marvelous light. Thus, by both life (1 Peter 2:5; Titus 2:11-14; Ephesians 2:10) and by word (1 Peter 2:9; 3:15), our purpose is to serve God. As the believer’s body is the temple of the Holy Spirit (1 Corinthians 6:19-20), so God has called us to serve Him from our hearts by first of all offering our lives as living sacrifices (Romans 12:1-2). One day we will be serving God in eternity (Revelation 22:3-4), but not in any temple, for "the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are its temple" (Revelation 21:22). As the Old Testament priesthood was to be free of defilement, as symbolized by being ceremonially clean, so has Christ made us holy positionally before the Father. He calls on us to live holy lives that we might also be a "holy priesthood" (1 Peter 2:5).

Isa 61:7 double honor

Israel will receive double portions of blessing to replace the double punishment of her exile (Isa 40:2).

Isa 61:8 everlasting covenant

This refers to the New Covenant.

Isa 61:9 Their descendants…

Now God describes how the implications of this covenant will impact the life and reputation of the “seed, offspring” (zeraʿ) of the Israelites, a consequence already promised to those who repent in Isa 59:20–21. C. R. Seitz connects the enhanced reputation of the righteous offspring to the work of the Servant, for he, like them, will also be lifted up and be highly exalted (Isa 52:13). An even stronger connection exists between the impact of the Anointed One who has the Spirit (Isa 59:21) and the repentant seed (Isa 59:20–21). God will make his covenant with these people (Isa 59:20–21); God’s presence will be with them (Isa 60:1–3); the Anointed One will work on their behalf (Isa 61:1–3); and God’s blessing on them (Isa 61:6–8) will mark these people as unique. The other nations will recognize this unique relationship God will have with his people.

The second half of the verse reemphasizes the special relationship between the Israelites and God. It will be seen, recognized, and acknowledged as a direct result of the blessing of God.

Isa 61:10 clothed me… covered me

Here is the OT picture of imputed righteousness, the essential heart of the New Covenant. When a penitent sinner recognizes he can’t achieve his own righteousness by works (see notes on Rom. 3:19–22; 2 Cor. 5:21; Phil. 3:8, 9), and repents and calls on the mercy of God, the Lord covers him with His own divine righteousness by grace through his faith.

Isa 61:11 crops

The response of joy ends with a second reason (kî, “because)” that explains why the Anointed One rejoices. This reason is expressed by making a comparison (kā … kēn; “as … so”) between the earth’s ability to cause plants to spring up and the Lord’s ability to cause righteousness to spring up. Every reader in an agricultural economy would know that when the rain falls on the soil, shoots will spring up out of the dormant roots of grass; seeds that were sown in a garden or field will start to grow. These undeniable facts of nature are compared to what the Lord will do to cause his seeds of righteousness and praise to spring up. It is a great joy to know that God has the power to produce these unstoppable results. The comparison presents a guarantee or promise that the Spirit’s empowerment of the Anointed One is sure to bring about the results of salvation and righteousness. The exuberant praise that will spring up from Zion will be the people’s joyful response to God’s great gift of salvation. The final comment in this hymn is that this human praise of God will be heard by all the nations. This partially explains why the nations will come to Zion and will join in this praise of God (Isa 52:10; Isa 60:6, ISa 60:9; Isa 66:18).

Isaiah 62

62:2 - "you shall be called by a new name"
  • No longer
    • "Forsaken" (62:4)
    • "Desolate"
  • But now
    • Hephzibah - Hebrew for "My delight is in her" (62:4)
    • Beulah - Hebrew for "Married"
    • "The Holy People" (62:12)
    • "The Redeemed of the Lord"
    • "Sought Out"
    • "A City Not Forsaken"
  • A new name typically means a new character - so it is not just a different title, but a change in character
    • Abram ("Exalted Father") --> Abraham ("Father of Many Nations")
    • Sarai ("Princess") --> Sarah ("My Princess (To All)")
    • Jacob ("Heel Holder/Supplanter") --> Israel ("God Prevails")
      • He no longer clings to obtain on his own, but submits to God's working through him
    • Simon ("Hear/Listen") --> Peter ("Rock")
      • Peter would be used in the foundation of the church
  • God is giving both the city and the people new names
    • Preparing the people (both Israel and the Gentiles) to be worthy of occupying the redeemed city
62:4-5 - we again have the marriage imagery for God's relationship to his people
  • Repeated in the New Testament (e.g., Eph 5:25-33)
  • "So shall your sons marry you" - the re-inhabitation of Jerusalem
62:6-7 - God has set watchmen... to give Him no rest until he make Jerusalem a praise of the earth
  • God has already promised that this will happen - so the watchmen are not there to actually cause it to happen
  • An example of how we pray for things, even when God has already promised them
    • e.g. the Lord's prayer
"They shall call them..." ... "You shall be called..."
  • Seems to indicate two groups of people
    • They - Gentiles
    • You - Israel
"His reward is with Him, and His work before Him"
  • See also Rev 22:12

Isaiah 63


In the previous few chapters (Isa 60-62), positive images of joy, blessing, worship, and the welcoming

of foreign nations were presented. In this chapter, the tone is changed to one of wrath. God is loving

and merciful but He is also just. Before we go into this chapter, let’s review some basic theology to

prepare us:

God Is Just

  • God shows no partiality (Acts 10:34)

  • God is just in punishing (Col 3:25, 2 Thes 1:6, Rom 12:19)

  • God is just in rewarding (Heb 6:10)

  • Justice and righteousness are the foundation of God’s throne (Psalm 89:14)

God Is Loving and Merciful

  • God IS love (1 John 4:8)

  • God loved us in that while we were still sinners Christ died for us (Rom 5:8)

  • God sacrificed His son for the world (John 3:16)

God is Just and Merciful

  • Parable of the servant who owed money (Matthew 18:23-35)

    • A talent is a unit of weight. If applied to the current price of gold, the amount of money

    • owed would be ~18 billion USD. This is more than the entire GDP of Rome at the time.

    • It basically means an impossibly high amount that can never be repaid (like our sins!).

    • And yet, the master forgave the servant. Instead of loving the master, however, he

    • choked his servant over an amount of ~2000 USD. The response of the master was

    • to send the wicked servant to the torturers until he can repay his debt -- meaning he

    • can never repay it. Likewise, hell is eternal. The point here is that any unforgiving sinner,

    • by the fact that he refuses to forgive, is inviting God to withhold forgiveness from him [1]. You see that God is just and merciful.

The Victorious Divine Warrior (Isa 63:1-6)

This paragraph introduces three things:

  1. the final annihilation of the nation of Edom

  2. a picture of God treading out the grapes in a wine press

  3. God’s wrathful judging of all nations. 

These images are in sharp contrast with the positive images of joy, blessing, worship, and the

welcoming of the foreign nations in chaps. 60–62. [1]


Edom represents a God-hating world (Isa 34:5). Bozrah was a capital city in Edom at one time

(Isa 34:6). The Messiah, coming as an avenger approaching Jerusalem to reign after having avenged

His people on His and their enemies, is presented in imagery taken from the destruction of Edom, the

representative in this picture of the last and most bitter foes of God and His people. [2]

The Divine Warrior

How can an unrighteous people manifest the light of God that will bring the nations to his feet? The

answer is the divine warrior. God will defeat every enemy of his people, including the most dangerous

of all, sin. Because of the physical and military imagery used in these verses, it might be easy to think

that what is intended here is an announcement that God will defeat all the nations who oppress Israel

in the future as the Jews thought during Jesus’ time (Acts 1:6). Recall also that the Jews rejected God

as their king by wanting an earthly king (1 Sam 8:7) . While it is true that Jesus is king and will be king,

the imagery presented here goes beyond that.

This is made clear by the succeeding context. Israel’s problem is that they are weak because they are

sinful. In response, God does not say in Isa 63:1–66:24 that he will destroy their physical enemies in

spite of their sinfulness. Rather, he will destroy the sinners among his people and will vindicate those

among his people who will repent and believe, using these latter people to call the nations to worship

the righteous God. They are his true servants (Isa 65:13–16; cf. Isa 54:17). [3]

Isa 63:1 

at the end of the last chapter, God tells us THAT He is going to deliver Zion. At the beginning of this

chapter, God tells us HOW He is going to deliver Zion by describing the triumphant march of a warrior.

Who is this great warrior? It is none other than God Himself!  

Isa 63:2 

Why are His clothes red, asks verse 2 rhetorically (Isa 63:2)? A simile to stomping grapes in a vat is

used as a transition to the next verse.

Isa 63:3 

God’s wrath is explained. He says that He did it all by Himself and that the juice splashed on His own

garments and stained His clothes. We know that white clothes represent purity. How could God’s white

clothes be stained? It is because He, as Jesus, became sin Who knew no sin so that in Him we might

become the righteousness of God (2 Cor 5:21)! We know this is what this imagery means because

there are other verses that use this imagery: Rev 19:13-15, Rev 7:14. Remember that this is one of

the ways we can know that something is a type or shadow by using scripture to interpret scripture. 

God is not a boiling kettle just simmering with anger. Remember that God is just. He therefore doesn’t

just fly off the handle because he is in a mood. Verse 4 affirms this. 

Isa 63:4 

God planned this in advance -- this was not a kneejerk reaction. We can be certain that God has

planned things for now as well. We could rightly say that God planned the coronavirus for 2020 but

yet He is not the author of sin. God let it happen just like God let the devil do what he would to Job

short of killing him. Why would God do that? To glorify Himself (e.g. Ex 14:4). Glorifying Himself is the

best thing that He can possibly do and the best thing that we can possibly do is to glorify Him since He

is the very definition of good.

God’s Plans

  • good works that we should walk in them (Eph 2:10)

  • Christ’s death on the cross (Acts 2:23)

  • our sanctification in Christ (Phil 1:6, Eph 1:13, Eph 1:4)

  • “all things” (some we know, others we don’t) (Eph 1:11-12, Isa 46:10).

  • Note that Eph 1:12 was

  • included in order to give context to verse 11 which is that “all things” pertains to bringing about

  • our sanctification in Christ. In other words, God controls the universe in such-a-way as to

  • sanctify us.

Isa 63:5 

There was no-one to help. None of the nations that Israel had put their trust in and God judged

throughout Isaiah would enact justice. Likewise for sin, there is none righteous - no not one

(Rom 3:10). Who is worthy to open the seal (Rev 5:1-5)? Only God Himself as Jesus Christ.

Isa 63:6

God’s wrath on the nations. More imagery about wine (drunk, splashed their juice/blood on the ground).

God often hardens hearts and gives people over to their sins as a judgement against them. This is

analogous to giving a drunk person more wine. They become more and more drunk and further

disconnected from reality. Here are some verses where God does this:

Rom 9:18 “...He has mercy on whom He desires, and He hardens whom He desires.”

Ex 4:21 “...the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart...”

Rom 1:24 “...God gave them over to a debased mind...”

Rom 11:7 “...those who were chosen obtained it, and the rest were hardened”

Rom 11:25 “...a partial hardening has happened to Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in”


How has God hardened the nations today?


  1. Smith, G. (2009). Isaiah 40-66 (Vol. 15B, p. 628). Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers.

  2. MacArthur, J., Jr. (Ed.). (1997). The MacArthur Study Bible (electronic ed., p. 1049). Nashville, TN: Word Pub.





A Prayer for Divine Intervention

Isa 63:7

Change of subject here.Introduction to what follows which is a list of some of the many good things that the Lord did for the family of Israel -- lest we erroneously think from the previous section that God’s wrath is cruel and not deserved. The reason God did these great things is because of his compassion and great faithfulness.

Isa 63:8

they will be my people. This is going to happen. God unconditionally said it. God became their deliverer in Jesus Christ (verse).

Isa 63:9

God suffered through all that they, His children, suffered (verse). The messenger sent from his very presence (Jesus?) delivered Israel and carried them throughout ancient times. This was looking forward to Christ.

Isa 63:10

How does Israel respond to this kindness? By rebelling and offending the Holy Spirit. Because of this, God turned into an enemy and fought against them.

Isa 63:11

people who actually belong to God remember the ancient times. It is asked rhetorically where God went. Here He is described as the one who brought them up out of the sea and placed his holy Spirit among them

Isa 63:12

the one who made his majestic power available to moses, who divided the water before them (parting of the red sea), the result being God gained for Himself a lasting reputation (He was glorified).

Isa 63:13

God led Israel through deep water (parted red sea or on boats in the sea?). Deep water is treacherous on horseback but with the Lord leading them it was as if the horses were running on flat land (and not stumble). Reminds me of God making a highway through the wilderness. Stumbling means sinning. God makes it so it’s easy not to sin rather than being dead in sin and having it hold us back.

Isa 63:14

God granted Israel rest like a cow or goat grazing in the field in a valley. God guided His people gaining an honored reputation (more glory).

Isa 63:15 

This is a prayer for God to take notice. Asking for Him to not hold back His tender compassion and zeal and power.

Isa 63:16

God is our father even though Abraham and Israel don’t recognize us. Could this be the gentiles? As Christians, we are the true children of God but Jews don’t recognize this. Why is Abraham and Israel mentioned distinctly?

Isa 63:17

In other words, Why does God allow us to stray from our ways and harden our hearts so we don’t obey?

Isa 63:18 

Israel only reigned for a short time.

Isa 63:19


  1. Smith, G. (2009). Isaiah 40-66 (Vol. 15B, p. 655). Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers.

  2. MacArthur, J., Jr. (Ed.). (1997). The MacArthur Study Bible (electronic ed., p. 1050). Nashville, TN: Word Pub.

  3. Oswalt, J. N. (2003). Isaiah (p. 661). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House.